Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Initiative

The Department of Physics Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (EDI) initiative is a department-wide call to action to combat racism, discrimination, and implicit bias in academia and our daily lives. Review the Physics departmental action plan for the EDI initiativeThe EDI has 50+ members consisting of Physics students, staff, researchers, and faculty. We welcome new members year-round and participation and time commitment is flexible. 
If you are interested in contributing to the Physics EDI initiative: DETAILS  /  SIGN-UP

 To post an EDI-related event to this webpage and/or to the Physics social media, complete and submit the EDI Media Posting Form(link is external). (Princeton netID required). For questions or to join our Slack channel, contact physicsedi@princeton.edu.

Statement of Solidarity and Commitment to Action

The Princeton University Department of Physics stands in solidarity with local, national, and global movements against systemic racism, which have been highlighted by the issue of police violence against Black people in the United States. We affirm that Black and Brown lives matter, and commit to ensuring that all members of our community feel valued and empowered to achieve their potential. We further commit to listening and learning from Black and Brown communities, and addressing how individuals, departments, and institutions systemically maintain and reify the oppression and exclusion of Black people and other people of color.

On June 10th, 2020, members of the Physics Department joined physicists and academics across the country for a Strike for Black Lives; a day for non-Black scientists “to engage in academia’s core mission to build a better society for everyone” by educating themselves and advocating for change in their communities. Discussions at a Department Town Hall held on June 10 illuminated the need for deliberate and consistent action to combat racism in our community.

To implement the concrete actions discussed at the Town Hall on Strike for Black Lives, we created the Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (EDI) Initiative. This Initiative has created six different working groups and tasked each one with immediately creating and implementing programs and policy changes that support and address the needs of marginalized physicists and students.

As the American public confronts the institutional racism of our nation, we recommit ourselves to listening to and supporting Black and Brown scholars and creating a department environment where they can thrive. We must work to support individuals with multiple identities who are discriminated against and excluded in our society, including race, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, disability, nationality, indigenous identity, and immigration status. We hope that our scholarship and daily actions will be part of a larger movement that forges an alliance to unite people around human dignity. 

Signed by,
Herman Verlinde, Chair and Class of 1909 Professor of Physics
James D. Olsen, Associate Chair and Professor of Physics
William C. Jones, Associate Chair and Associate Professor of Physics
Lisa M. Scalice, Senior Department Manager

Upcoming Events

  • EDI initiative "All Hands" meeting

    Tue, Dec 7, 2021, 2:00 pm
    Location: (Check emails or the EDI Slack channel for an update on location and/or Zoom link.)
Notices and Updates

June 2021 update from the EDI Undergraduate Recruitment Group:
Summer Research Talk Series for Undergraduates
We are starting up our summer research talk series aimed at undergraduates. The goal of this series is to have graduate students and post-docs give accessible talks about their research and how they got involved in their particular field. This is a great opportunity to get introduced to various research topics and to get familiar with different aspects of being a practicing physicist! Check "Upcoming Events" for individual talk details.

March 2021 update from the EDI Data Gathering Group:
We are excited to release the all-new physics climate survey, the result of a collaboration between our student-run EDI Data Gathering group here in the Physics Department and the Princeton Office of the Provost. We began several months ago by studying similar surveys at Princeton and elsewhere to collect questions. We also went through an extensive revision process with the EDI Advisory Board to broaden our questions to better include all groups within the department, including staff and faculty. We added additional questions specific to our department, such as questions to assess how the department is supporting the development of scientific identity among its trainees. The data from this survey will be used to target EDI efforts over the coming years, and to evaluate the success of the program. This is a chance to learn what is working and what needs to be improved with regards to department climate. Please look for that email with the link to participate and encourage those you know within the department to do so as well so that we can take as many views into account as possible as we work to make the department more welcoming for everyone. 
generic survey image

Past Events

List of Past events

12:30 pm, Wednesday, August 4, 2021
EDI Summer Research Talk Series for Undergraduates
 Caroline Holmes, Princeton University Department of Physics graduate student
Abstract: Organisms sense the world through arrays of receptor cells, such as photoreceptors on the retina. In cases such as the compound eyes of insects, these arrays are nearly crystalline, while in others, such as the human retina, sampling is much less regular. Ordered arrays gather more information, but this comes at the cost of specifying the positions of all the cells. We can build quantitative models of this tradeoff, which give predictions of the relationship between sensory information and positional entropy. We will also compare these predictions to data in the human retina.

12:30 pm, Wednesday, July 21, 2021
EDI Summer Research Talk Series for Undergraduates
 Adriana Dropulic, Princeton University Department of Physics graduate student
Talk title: "Searching for Dark Matter in the Milky Way"
Abstract: It is well-understood from Vera Rubin’s investigation of rotation curves of spiral galaxies that the majority of matter in galaxies is not visible. It is unknown; it is “dark matter.” These spiral galaxies, like the Milky Way, formed by absorbing smaller galaxies during violent “galaxy mergers,” which left stars from the merging galaxy strewn across the Milky Way. In this talk, we will learn that these stars hold important clues that can help us understand our Galaxy’s formation history, and that by using a combination of astroparticle physics and machine learning, we can begin to decipher properties of this mysterious “dark matter.”

12:30 pm, Wednesday, July 7, 2021
EDI Summer Research Talk Series for Undergraduates
 Kelsey Hallinen, Associate Research Scholar/CPBF Fellow
Abstract: Our lab works at the intersection of physics and neuroscience to study the organism C. elegansC. elegans is a small nematode that is about 1 mm in length, has only 302 neurons, and is a great organism to study how neural signals drive behavior. I will talk about approaches to recording and analyzing worm neural signals and discuss my recent work to decode locomotion (velocity and body curvature) from the neural signals. We record from the majority of neurons in the head of the worm with a custom microscope. We use those neural signals, along with simultaneous behavior recordings, to develop a population decoder using linear ridge regression that predicts the animal’s velocity and curvature.   

12:30 pm, Wednesday, June 30, 2021
EDI Summer Research Talk Series for Undergraduates
Speaker: Marianne Bauer, Visiting Postdoctoral Research Associate/CPBF Fellow

Abstract: Gene expression is just one of the biological processes where physics can help form quantitative hypothesis, sometimes in the form of models, that can be investigated in conjunction with experiments. In this talk, I will give an overview of two aspects of theoretical research in biological physics. I will first talk about biological model systems for bacterial populations, and then focus on research concerning the biophysics of gene expression in the early fly embryo. There, we will see how theoretical investigations, based also on information theory, can help identify principles or form narratives that help understand some of the complexities that occur in gene regulation.

12:30 pm, Wednesday, June 23, 2021
EDI Summer Research Talk Series for Undergraduates
Speaker: Kasey Wagoner, Princeton University

Abstract: The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the oldest light in the universe. Measurements of the CMB are rich in information about the universe. In this talk I will give a brief introduction to the CMB, what science can be done with CMB measurements, and some of the CMB work being done in our department. 

The EDI committee for undergraduate recruitment is starting up our summer research talk series aimed at undergraduates. The goal of this series is to have graduate students and post-docs give accessible talks about their research and how they got involved in their particular field. This is a great opportunity to get introduced to various research topics and to get familiar with different aspects of being a practicing physicist!

4 pm (EST) Thursday, May 6, 2021
EDI Seminar Series: Advancing Diversity at the PhD Level in Physics and Astronomy
Speaker: Dr. Dara Norman,
a Full Scientist and Deputy Director of the Community Science and Data Center at the NSF’s National Optical and Infrared Astronomical Research Laboratory (NOIRLab)
Dr. Norman will highlight examples of past culture change in the field, growing trends toward implementation of the values that support equity, diversity and inclusion in research, and the structural changes needed to usher in an inclusion revolution for Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Poster for EDI seminar on May 6, 2021 with Dr. Norman

Friday, April 9 - Saturday, April 10, 2021
P4: Prospective Physics PhD Preview
Attention early-undergraduates interested in learning more about graduate school!
The Princeton Physics Department Ambassadors are hosting a 1.5-day virtual workshop with Princeton Physics faculty and grad students. We will focus on how to get involved with research, crafting grad school applications, and understanding life as a grad student. Registration details to be posted shortly.

EDI ambassadors

Prospective Physics PhD Preview (P4) Program Application Due Soon!
Application due 11:59PM EST, Saturday, March 28, 2021

We at Princeton Physics would like to invite you to apply for the P4 (Prospective Physics PhD Preview) Program, a brand-new workshop organized by the Princeton Physics Ambassadors. P4 will focus on giving you the tools to engage in physics research, identify your ideal graduate programs, and develop a competitive graduate application. Along the way, you’ll interact with graduate students, postdocs, and faculty from Princeton’s Physics Department. The workshop will run between April 9-10th, 2021, so mark your calendars!

To be eligible for the program, you must currently be in your sophomore undergraduate year and have demonstrated strong interest in physics through your coursework. If you do not fit these criteria explicitly but feel as though this program still pertains to your current undergraduate standing, please feel free to reach out to us. We especially welcome students from historically underrepresented groups to register.

To apply, please submit the following details to phy-ambassadors@princeton.edu by 11:59PM EST on Saturday, March 28th:

1. Your full name (preferred name, if applicable), pronouns, and email address

2. The university you currently attend, your year, and your major (intended or declared)

3. A list of physics courses you’ve taken or are currently enrolled in

4. A brief statement of interest describing your physics background, research interests and experiences (if applicable), career goals and how they relate to graduate studies in physics, and expectations for the P4 program (max 250 words)

Please don’t hesitate to reach out with any questions - we look forward to receiving your applications!

P4 (Prospective Physics PhD Preview) Program Application

4 pm (EST) Thursday, March 18, 2021
EDI Seminar Series: Advancing Diversity at the PhD Level in Physics and Astronomy
Speaker: Keivan G. Stassun, Vanderbilt University

This talk will address the under-representation of Black-, Hispanic-, and Native-Americans at the PhD level in Physics. In this talk, Stassun will describe lessons learned from the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program as a successful model for addressing this problem. 
Hosted by the Department of Physics and the Department of Astrophysics.

EDI seminar poster for March 18 talk

Princeton University hosts Black History Month events that connect, educate and celebrate
In recognition of Black History Month, Princeton University is hosting virtual conversations, class, exhibits and educational resources that recognize the lives and achievements of Black people in the context of Princeton's and the country's history. All events will take place virtually. For a list of the Month's Black history-related programs, click here.

4 pm, Thursday, Feb. 25, 2021
"The Campus Color Line" 
with author and UCLA professor Eddie R. Cole.
Cole will be in conversation with Vice Provost for Institutional Equity and Diversity Michele Minter, with an introduction by President Christopher L. Eisgruber. The conversation is co-sponsored by the Office of Institutional Equity and Diversity and the Office of Communications. Cole, an associate professor of higher education and organizational change at UCLA, will discuss his new book “The Campus Color Line: College Presidents and the Struggle for Black Freedom.” Focusing on the period between 1948 and 1968, the book illuminates the important role of college presidents — including Princeton’s Robert F. Goheen — in the unfinished struggle for racial equity in education and beyond. Registration is required to attend.

February 22 - 26, 2021
Black in Physics Wikithon

This event is dedicated to highlighting Black Physicists who have made lasting contributions to research, education, and diversity and inclusion initiatives. BlackInPhysics.org invites you to fill out this form to add Black individuals who you deem have contributed to our physics society and require a Wikipedia page; h​​​​​ave a Wikipedia page that needs updating/expanding (i.e references, photos, links); have a Wikipedia page that requires translating to different languages. The work of increasing the Representation, Recruitment, and Retention of Black talent to the physics community requires active engagement not only from those that are underrepresented in physics but also from those individuals who identify as allies and are committed to changing the notion of what a physicist looks like. Please fill out this form to sign up to help. For more information: https://www.aip.org/diversity-initiatives/bhm-wikithon

4 pm (ET), Tuesday, Jan. 19, 2021
Seminar Series on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion

"The Time is Now: Findings from AIP's TEAM-UP Report to Increase the Number of African Americans with Bachelor’s Degree in Physics and Astronomy" with speaker Tabbetha Dobbins (Rowan University).
Click to join the seminar:  https://princeton.zoom.us/j/93511620775
Meeting ID: 935 1162 0775
image of EDI seminar Jan. 19 poster

TEAM-UP Implementation Workshops - American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Extended Deadline:
 December 11, 2020 5:00 pm (ET)
Apply to Participate in Implementation Workshops 

As a next step to the launch of the AIP's successful report, The Time is Now: Systemic Changes to Increase African Americans with Bachelor’s Degrees in Physics & Astronomy, the TEAM-UP project is organizing two workshops, several months apart to help departments begin implementing the report’s recommendations. Additionally, the TEAM-UP project will work with departmental teams before and after the workshops to provide resources, support, and community engagement.  

TEAM-UP Implementation Workshops: 
Workshop 1 (virtual) – January 28-29, 2021 

Workshop 2 – Dates TBD 

Who Should Participate: 

  • Physics and astronomy departmental teams (Teams should include students, faculty and/or administrators at various levels)
  • Departments committed to tackling barriers to African American student belonging and success in their departments using the TEAM-UP Report recommendations
  • Departments wanting help to build a framework for plans and actions that focus on African American student outcomes
    image of the AIP's TEAM-UP Implementation Workshop banner

4 pm (ET), Thursday, Dec. 10, 2020
Seminar Series on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion

Russ Porter, Christopher Stubbs, and Benita Wolff will share their collective experience in moving Harvard further along the path to fully inclusive excellence. 
Register to receive the Zoom password: https://forms.gle/qr9jHReyTZYodte7A

image of poster for EDI seminar on Dec. 10

Princeton Physics Graduate Admissions webinar
Monday, December 7, 2020
3 pm 
(EST). Join us for our second graduate admissions webinar! Open to any student considering physics graduate studies. To register, contact your region's Ambassador or fill out this form: http://ow.ly/LTfU50CBIpO.  Click here for details about the Princeton Physics Ambassador Program.

image of poster for Graduate Admissions webinar on Dec. 7

Summer Internship through PICS (Princeton Internships in Civic Service)
Deadline: 5 pm (EST), Monday, December 7, 2020 
Apply herehttps://pics.princeton.edu/students#Critical%20Dates
These internships will be running in 2021! Options include education, public policy, and community  development to name a few. Summary: PICS offers 8-10 week paid summer internships at nonprofit organizations across the United States and abroad. Paired with an alumni mentor, PICS students explore opportunities in research, energy policy, advocacy for marginalized communities, arts and cultural organizations, bridging educational achievement gap, service, environmental sustainability, and global health. Several PICS internships fulfill requirements of certificate programs. While PICS interns come from diverse backgrounds and a wide range of academic interests they are united in their desire to serve. Details: https://pics.princeton.edu/

PICS group photo

Seminar Series on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion
Thursday, December 10, 2020 at 4 pm (ET)
Russ Porter, Christopher Stubbs, and Benita Wolf will share their collective experience in moving Harvard further along the path to fully inclusive excellence.
Register to receive the Zoom password: https://forms.gle/qr9jHReyTZYodte7A

EDI initiative "All Hands" Meeting
2 pm (ET), Thursday, December 3, 2020 (75 participants attended!)

All working groups should plan to present ~5-10 minutes of updates on their ongoing projects.  We're looking forward to seeing you all then!
image of EDI logo

Physics Department Book Club
3:30 pm (EST), Wednesday, December 2, 2020

Join us for our inaugural book club (virtual) event. We will introduce the book "Einstein on Race and Racism" by Fred Jerome and Rodger Taylor.  
https://princeton.zoom.us/j/94296404435  (Meeting ID: 942 9640 4435)

image of book cover "Einstein on Race and Racism"

TEAM-UP Report: The TIME is Now — Charting a Course to 2030
2 pm - 4 pm, Friday, November 20, 2020  
Registration: https://www.aps.org/programs/minorities/webinars/teamup.cfm
Sponsored by: American Physical SocietyAmerican Institute of Physics

The AIP National Task Force to Elevate African American Representation in Undergraduate Physics & Astronomy (TEAM-UP) released a report in early 2020 on their two-year study of the experiences of African American physics students. The report includes recommendations and a call to action for institutions, faculty, and students who are interested in supporting the success of African American undergraduates in physics.

In this third joint physics society webinar, panelists will speak of their two-year study on the experiences of African American physics students. 

After attending, webinar attendees will take away a better understanding of:

  1. The TEAM-UP Report and recommendations
  2. How to get involved in implementation workshops
  3. Next steps for TEAM-UP
  4. How to implement changes using the TEAM-UP report
  5. How to take action at their own institutions

The webinar will be hosted by APS CEO Dr. Kate Kirby and APS President-Elect S. James Gates, Jr. (Brown University, Ford Foundation Professor of Physics & Affiliate Professor of Mathematics).
photos of presenters: Prof. Tabbetha Dobbins, Dr. Mary James, Dr. Dara Norman

The Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS)
November 9-13, 2020

ABRCMS is one of the largest communities of underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Students attend this conference to present their research, enhance professional development skills, explore graduate schools, and network. Research faculty and program directors play an essential role in mentoring students and learning strategies for facilitating student success. Details: https://www.abrcms.org/

Last year, ABRCMS engaged 5300+ attendees through scientific and professional development sessions, student presentations and networking opportunities. This year, ABRCMS: The Virtual Experience will deliver timely and relevant content and activities tailored to the current times. You can expect the same ABRCMS conference you have come to love – with opportunities to learn, share and connect with peers and experts – in a socially distant format.

image of ABRCMS conference event banner

National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) Conference
November 5-8, 2020

Participation by Princeton Physics is coordinated by the Physics Graduate Recruitment Working Group and the Graduate School's ADI Team. Details: https://www.nsbp.org/2020-conference/2020-conference-home(link is external)
image of National Society of Black Physicists conference poster

#BlackinPhysics Week
October 26-31, 2020

Seven topical days twill cover different aspects of physics. We will have professional and social events, as well as community-building activities on twitter. Each day will feature an article written by Black physicists regarding different aspects of our identities. Each of the following physics disciplines will have one day of #BlackInPhysics week dedicated to them: physics education research, high energy and astro- physics, AMO physics, condensed matter and materials physics, soft condensed matter physics, as well as nuclear and medical physics. 
Details: blackinphysics.org
image of BlackInPhysics logo

EDI Seminar Series
Tuesday, Oct. 27, 2020 at 4 pm
Speaker: Professor William Massey, the Edwin S. Wilsey Professor of Operations Research and Financial Engineering.
Join the seminar! https://princeton.zoom.us/j/94964613381

Prof. Wilsey will present a brief chronology for a near century historical interplay of the Black experience in the Princeton area with Princeton Physics (followed by Q&A). 
Event hosted by the Dept. of Physics and Dept of Astrophysics; coordinated by the Physics EDI Activities and Speakers Working Group.

Poster publicizing Prof. Massey's seminar

SACNAS - The National Diversity in STEM Virtual Conference
October 19-24, 2020 (online!) 
The Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) conference serves to equip, empower and energize participants for their academic and professional paths in STEM. Event participation coordinated by the Princeton Graduate School ADI Team.
Conference Ambassador sign-up form: https://forms.gle/278Vu8THK6xK8Dhk8
Conference details: https://www.2020sacnas.org/#platformvideo 
image of SACNAS poster

Grad Life @ Princeton Physics
Friday, October 16, 2020
4 pm 
(EST). Are you considering applying to a physics graduate program? Did you know that you get paid to be a grad student? Ph.D. programs in STEM fields are full-time jobs with all the benefits: no tuition and getting paid to research and learn! With admissions season on the horizon, we know you’ve got questions about applications, grad life, and what it’s like to do graduate physics research. 
Who: We’re the Princeton Physics Recruitment Ambassadors, you’re the budding young physicist! 
What: A Zoom webinar where we’ll talk about graduate life, applications, and research at Princeton. Pro-tip: don’t miss the special (read, optional) break-out session with your region’s ambassador following the main event! 
Where: Join Zoom Meeting: https://princeton.zoom.us/j/95143456987(link is external)
Why: Because you care about physics, and we care that you care about physics. This event is for everyone, and we want to provide as much transparency as we can! We especially welcome students from historically-underrepresented groups to join our event. This seminar is open to all U.S. and international students and prospective applicants (do not have to be affiliated with Princeton to attend). This event was organized by the Princeton Physics EDI Initiative.
image of Grad Life @ Princeton ambassadors

Prospective Ph.D. Preview (P3)
Thursday, Oct. 8, 2020

2 pm - 4:50 pm (EST). Breakout sections will include current faculty members and graduate students from Physics/Astro/PPPL. P3 is designed for prospective students to gather information on graduate education at Princeton University. This event is open to any interested students and highly encourages participation from first generation/low income students and historically underrepresented groups. Participation is invitation only. Applications for the 2021 program will open in Spring 2021: Details: https://graddiversity.princeton.edu/prospective-phd-preview-p3. Event participation coordinated by the EDI Graduate Recruitment Working Group, Physics/Astro/PPPL departments, and the Princeton Graduate School ADI Team.
image of Grad School ADI "Prospective PhD Preview (P3)" webpage

EDI Seminar Series
Tuesday, Sept. 29, 2020 at 4 pm
Speaker: Shawn Maxam, Senior Associate Director for Institutional Diveristy and Inclusion in Princeton's Office of the Provost. The session provided an overview of best practices and strategies for enhancing racial diversity and representation. Coordinated by the Physics EDI Activities & Speakers Working Group, and the Physics and Astrophysics Departments. Event coordinated by the Physics EDI Activities and Speakers Working Group.
image of Shawn Maxam poster

Physics EDI "All-Hands" General Meeting
Thursday, Sept. 17, 2020

All those affiliated with the Princeton Physics community (undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, staff, researchers, and faculty) are welcome to attend. The EDI strives for transparency and always welcomes new members, however, you do not have to be involved with EDI to attend.

Physics Graduate Recruitment Town Hall meeting
Tuesday, Aug. 25, 2020

Physics Town Hall meeting #2
Tuesday, June 16, 2020

Physics Town Hall meeting #1
Thursday, April 30, 2020

EDI working groups

  • Advisory Board (coordinators: Mariangela Lisanti)
  • Events (coordinators: Sabrina Pasterski and Jennifer Bornkamp) This group aims to organize department events centered on the topic of diversity and inclusion, to curate speakers to meet the needs of other working groups and, most importantly, to ensure a departmental commitment to diversity for non-EDI events with respect to invited speakers and public engagement. The group also publicizes and promotes EDI projects, events, findings, and initiatives, both internally to the department and externally. 
  • Broader Outreach (coordinator: Jason Puchalla) This group facilitates and helps organize bridging activities within our department and the broader community. The group maintains outreach and in-reach connections and advocates for building pathways between the physics department and the public. The group publicizes and promotes EDI projects, events, findings, and initiatives, both internally to the department and externally. 
  • Graduate Student Matters (coordinator: Caroline Holmes) This group aims to make the graduate program more diverse and inclusive. With a program of outreach and professional development tailored to undergraduates, we hope to make the next cohort of graduate students our most diverse ever. 
  • Undergraduate Matters (coordinator: Zach Atkins ) We strive to foster a welcoming and engaging undergraduate Physics experience that promotes diversity, provides all students, regardless of their ultimate majors, with the support and structure most conducive to academic success, and offers meaningful research opportunities across class years.
  • Postdoc Matters: TBD

EDI update2

External Events and Resources:

Cultural and Affinity Groups at Princeton(link is external)(link is external)

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) National Task Force to Elevate African American Representation in Undergraduate Physics & Astronomy (TEAM-UP(link is external)(link is external)) has spent the last two years investigating the reasons for the persistent underrepresentation of African Americans in physics and has released a report with its findings. In this report, TEAM-UP has uncovered long-term systemic issues within the physics and astronomy communities that contribute to the underrepresentation of African Americans in these fields and makes important, actionable recommendations for community wide efforts to reverse this trend.

The American Physical Society (APS) Board Statement on Racial Violence(link is external)(link is external)Physics flourishes best when physicists can work in an environment of safety, justice, and equity. Therefore, all of us must work vigorously against systemic racism and to overcome implicit biases. The Board of the American Physical Society believes that it is timely to reaffirm the importance of building a diverse and inclusive physics community, as expressed in the APS Joint Diversity Statement(link is external)(link is external) (Human Rights 08.2). The Board expresses deep concern over incidents of racially biased violence and threats of violence against people of color.